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Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer, accounting for about 30% of diagnoses. There are two major subtypes: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common subtype, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous group of diseases originating from progenitor B or T cells, which can be classified based on immunological and molecular criteria. The identification of molecular alterations associated with leukemic transformation has brought not only biological, but also important clinical markers for the prognosis.

9p13, PAX5 9;22 - BCR/ABL 11q23 - MLL 1;19 - TCF3-PBX1 12;21 - TEL(ETV6)-AML1(RUNX1)